Few studies in the scientific literature provide clear direction on the prevention or management of pain associated with intrauterine contraceptive (IUC) placement. Those that have been published have studied small numbers of women and fail to provide definitive conclusions. There are also no guidelines available detailing recognised standard approaches to this problem. The consensus recommendations in this review focus primarily on non-pharmacological and often non-evidence-based interventions. This review includes general considerations, practical recommendations for both routine and more difficult cases and guidance on the optimal choice of instruments. General considerations, including pre-insertion counselling, the setting for the procedure, the confidence and technique of the provider and the interplay between the provider and assistant, can influence women's level of anxiety and, in turn, influence their perception of pain and their overall experience. Further studies are required to refine the optimal strategy for managing pain associated with IUC insertion.
- family planning service provision
- intrauterine devices
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