Table 1

Demographic, behavioural characteristics and beliefs among study participants by gender

CharacteristicsFemale (n=255)Male (n=220)P value*
Age (years, mean±SD)32.1±6.3637.40±5.19<0.001
Martial status0.087
  Married/committed relationship249(97.6)219(99.6)
 Some secondary or less219(85.9)169(76.8)
 Completed secondary or more36(14.1)51(23.2)
 Other/no religion0(0)3(1.4)
Years since diagnosis (mean±SD)4.64+3.454.62±4.140.949
Use of alcohol or drugs before/during sex in last month<0.001
Most recent sexual partner HIV-positive0.004
 Do not know44(17.3)16(7.3)
Most recent sexual partner has sex with other people<0.001
 Do not know73(28.6)48(21.9)
Sexual frequency in last month0.658
Sexual partners in past month (n)0.073
Children (n)0.006
Desire more children in the future0.010
Contraceptive use at last intercourse (IUD, implant, DMPA, pills, sterilisation, not including condom)0.202
Currently using ART0.846
 Yes, <2 years86(33.7)79(35.9)
 Yes, >2 years140(54.9)115(52.3)
Believe HIV medications effect transmission risk to partner0.577
 Increases risk or no change166(65.6)149(68.0)
 Decreases risk87(34.4)70(32.0)
Believe condoms are effective at preventing pregnancy0.487
Believe condoms prevent HIV transmission to partner0.057
Believe one needs to use a condom if using also birth control method0.064
Can refuse sex if partner did not want to use a condom<0.001
Decision-making about using condom use0.117
 I do (did)131(54.4)93(45.2)
 My partner does (did)35(14.5)31(15.0)
 We both do (did) equally75(31.1)82(39.8)
Consistent condom use in past month0.004
Condom use at last intercourse0.002
  • *P value by t-test for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; DMPA, depot medroxprogesterone acetate; IUD, intrauterine device.