Table 1

Demographic, behavioural characteristics and beliefs among study participants by gender

CharacteristicsFemale (n=255)Male (n=220)P value*
n(%)n(%)
Age (years, mean±SD)32.1±6.3637.40±5.19<0.001
Martial status0.087
  Married/committed relationship249(97.6)219(99.6)
  Single/dating6(2.4)1(0.4)
Education0.011
 Some secondary or less219(85.9)169(76.8)
 Completed secondary or more36(14.1)51(23.2)
Religion0.264
 Catholic50(19.7)47(21.5)
 Protestant186(73.2)152(69.4)
 Muslim18(7.1)17(7.8)
 Other/no religion0(0)3(1.4)
Years since diagnosis (mean±SD)4.64+3.454.62±4.140.949
Use of alcohol or drugs before/during sex in last month<0.001
 No229(92.3)161(73.2)
 Yes19(7.7)59(26.8)
Most recent sexual partner HIV-positive0.004
 No47(18.5)40(18.2)
 Yes163(64.2)164(74.6)
 Do not know44(17.3)16(7.3)
Most recent sexual partner has sex with other people<0.001
 No81(31.8)141(64.4)
 Yes101(39.6)30(13.7)
 Do not know73(28.6)48(21.9)
Sexual frequency in last month0.658
 ≤weekly120(47.1)108(49.1)
 >1x/week135(52.9)112(50.9)
Sexual partners in past month (n)0.073
  1248(97.2)208(94.6)
  2–44(1.6)11(5.0)
 >53(1.2)1(0.4)
Children (n)0.006
  014(5.5)6(2.7)
  1–2123(48.2)81(36.8)
 >3118(46.3)133(60.5)
Desire more children in the future0.010
 No160(62.8)161(73.9)
 Yes95(37.2)57(26.1)
Contraceptive use at last intercourse (IUD, implant, DMPA, pills, sterilisation, not including condom)0.202
 No140(55.6)135(61.4)
 Yes112(44.4)85(38.6)
Currently using ART0.846
 No29(11.4)26(11.8)
 Yes, <2 years86(33.7)79(35.9)
 Yes, >2 years140(54.9)115(52.3)
Believe HIV medications effect transmission risk to partner0.577
 Increases risk or no change166(65.6)149(68.0)
 Decreases risk87(34.4)70(32.0)
Believe condoms are effective at preventing pregnancy0.487
 No28(11.0)20(9.1)
 Yes226(89.0)200(90.0)
Believe condoms prevent HIV transmission to partner0.057
 No41(16.7)50(23.8)
 Yes205(83.3)160(76.2)
Believe one needs to use a condom if using also birth control method0.064
 No69(27.3)44(20.0)
 Yes184(72.7)176(80.0)
Can refuse sex if partner did not want to use a condom<0.001
 No127(50.6)64(29.4)
 Yes124(49.4)154(70.6)
Decision-making about using condom use0.117
 I do (did)131(54.4)93(45.2)
 My partner does (did)35(14.5)31(15.0)
 We both do (did) equally75(31.1)82(39.8)
Consistent condom use in past month0.004
 No157(61.8)107(48.6)
 Yes97(38.2)113(51.4)
Condom use at last intercourse0.002
 No113(44.7)67(30.7)
 Yes140(55.3)151(69.3)
  • *P value by t-test for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; DMPA, depot medroxprogesterone acetate; IUD, intrauterine device.