Table 3

Demographic, behavioural characteristics and beliefs of female and male participants by reporting condom use at last coitus

CharacteristicsCondom use at last coitus
Female (n=253)Male (n=218)
No (n=113)(44.7%)Yes (n=140)(55.3%)P valueNo (n=67)(30.7%)Yes (n=151)(69.3%)P-value*
n(%)n(%)n(%)n(%)
Age (years, mean±SD)32.1±6.032.1±6.70.92437.7±5.137.2±5.20.568
Marital status0.790
  Married or committed relationship110(44.5)137(55.5)
  Single or dating3(50.0)3(50.0)
Education0.0660.562
 Completed primary or less102(47.0)115(53.0)53(31.7)114(68.3)
 Some secondary or more11(30.6)25(69.4)14(27.5)37(72.6)
Religion0.0340.595
 Catholic29(58.0)21(42.0)16(34.0)31(66.0)
 Other84(41.4)119(58.6)51(30.0)119(70.0)
 Years since diagnosis (mean±SD) 4.5±3.64.8±3.40.5154.1±3.44.9±4.40.197
Use of alcohol or drugs before/during sex in last month0.4470.053
  No99(43.6)128(56.4)43(27.0)116(73.0)
 Yes10(52.6)9(47.4)24(40.7)35(59.3)
Most recent sexual partner HIV positive0.0270.053
 No21(45.7)25(54.3)7(18.0)32(82.1)
 Yes65(39.9)98(60.1)52(31.9)111(68.1)
 Do not know27(62.8)16(37.2)8(50.0)8(50.0)
Sexual frequency in last month0.0290.004
 ≤weekly45(37.5)75(62.5)23(21.5)84(78.5)
 >1x/week68(51.1)65(48.9)44(39.6)67(60.4)
Desire more children in the future0.0040.015
 No60(37.7)99(62.3)42(26.4)117(73.6)
 Yes53(56.4)41(43.6)25(43.9)32(56.1)
Contraceptive use at last intercourse (IUD, implant, DMPA, pills, sterilisation, not including condom)0.4000.721
 No65(46.8)74(53.2)40(29.9)94(70.2)
 Yes46(41.4)65(58.6)27(32.1)57(67.9)
Currently using ART0.1690.886
 No17(58.6)12(41.4)9(34.6)17(65.4)
 Yes, <2 years40(47.1)45(52.9)23(29.5)55(70.5)
 Yes, >2 years56(40.3)83(59.7)35(30.7)79(69.3)
Believe HIV medications effect transmission risk to partner0.3070.168
 Increases risk or no change70(42.7)94(57.3)41(27.9)106(72.1)
 Decreases risk43(49.4)44(50.6)26(37.1)44(62.9)
Believe condoms are effective at preventing pregnancy0.3030.147
 No15(53.6)13(46.4)9(45.0)11(55.0)
 Yes97(43.3)127(56.7)58(29.3)140(70.7)
Believe condoms are effective at preventing HIV transmission to partner0.8560.536
 No18(43.9)23(56.1)12(24.0)38(76.0)
 Yes86(42.4)117(57.6)45(28.5)113(71.5)
Believe one needs to use a condom if also using birth control method0.0570.004
 No37(54.4)31(45.6)21(48.8)22(51.2)
 Yes75(41.0)108(59.0)46(26.3)129(73.7)
Can refuse sex if partner did not want to use a condom<0.001<0.001
 No87(69.0)39(31.0)38(59.4)26(40.6)
 Yes23(18.6)101(81.5)28(18.4)124(81.6)
Decision-making about using condom use0.0010.041
 I do (did)67(51.2)64(48.9)23(24.7)70(75.3)
 My partner does (did)14(41.2)20(58.8)14(45.2)17(54.8)
 We both do (did) equally19(25.3)56(74.7)18(22.2)63(77.8)
  • *P value by t-test for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact test for categorical variables.

  • ART, antiretroviral therapy; DMPA, depot medroxprogesterone acetate; IUD, intrauterine device.