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Gay fathers’ reproductive journeys and parenting experiences: a review of research
  1. Damien W Riggs1,
  2. Clemence Due2
  1. 1Associate Professor, School of Social and Policy Studies, Flinders University, Adelaide and Visiting Research Fellow, School of Psychology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
  2. 2Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Southgate Institute for Health, Society and Equity, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Damien W Riggs, School of Social and Policy Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia; damien.riggs{at}


Over the past decade growing numbers of gay men have sought and found ways to become parents, including through surrogacy, giving birth, adoption and fostering. These modes of family formation are situated alongside pre-existing modes of family formation available to gay men, specifically in heterosexual relationships and through donating sperm to lesbian recipients. This review article summarises the literature related to each of these modes of family formation. It highlights the discrimination that gay men may face as parents and the positive outcomes both for gay fathers and for the children they parent.

  • gay men
  • parenting
  • discrimination
  • family formation
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