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Causes and consequences of unintended pregnancies in the Gaza Strip: a qualitative study
  1. Bettina Böttcher1,
  2. Mysoon Abdelaziz Abu-El-Noor2,
  3. Nasser Ibrahim Abu-El-Noor2
  1. 1 Faculty of Medicine, Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Medicine, Gaza, Palestine
  2. 2 Faculty of Nursing, Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Nursing, Gaza, Palestine
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bettina Böttcher, Faculty of Medicine, Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Medicine, Gaza, Palestine; bettina.bottcher{at}yahoo.co.uk

Abstract

Background Little is known about unintended pregnancies in the Gaza Strip. This study explored causes and consequences of unintended pregnancies among women in the Gaza Strip.

Methods This was a qualitative study, and included 21 women who had experienced unintended pregnancies previously. Data collection took place in three focus groups of 5–12 participants, which were facilitated by one female researcher. Structured questions on reasons for, causes and impact of unintended pregnancies were answered by all participants. Sessions were audiotaped and responses were transcribed and read by all the researchers to extract themes.

Results The mean age of participants was 34.2±6.0 years, parity was 2.7±0.6 and 16 participants (76.2%) had benefitted from secondary level education or above.

Five main themes were identified: (1) economic hardship was the main reason for pregnancies to be unwanted; (2) high pressure was exerted on women for male babies, exposing women to gender-based violence; (3) advanced maternal age was perceived as a social stigma; (4) complete lack of support for women facing unintended pregnancy led to self-management of terminations including attempts of unsafe methods; and (5) changes of methods and incorrect use leading to contraceptive failure was the most frequent cause.

Conclusions Unintended pregnancies in the Gaza Strip are a common cause of distress for women. The most effective way of preventing unintended pregnancies remains access to reliable contraception. However, a service designated to support women facing unintended pregnancies is needed in the Gaza Strip. Local policymakers have to address this when planning healthcare services.

  • unintended pregnancy
  • contraceptive failure
  • gender based violence
  • long acting reversible contraception
  • Gaza Strip
  • Palestine
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Footnotes

  • Contributors BB contributed to design and planning of the study, as well as to data collection, and she drafted and approved the manuscript. MAEN contributed to design and planning of the study, as well as to data collection, and she revised and approved the manuscript. NAEN contributed to design and planning of the study, and he revised and approved the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval No Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) exist in the Gaza Strip. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Human Resources Department of the Palestinian Ministry of Health (MoH), which is the body in Gaza that issues ethical and administrative approvals for studies involving humans. Further approval to conduct the study was obtained from the administrative body of the Women’s Centre where data collection was conducted. Formal written consent was obtained from all potential participants prior to taking part in this study. The purpose of the study was explained to all participants as well as the fact that taking part in this study was completely voluntary and had no effect on the medical care they received. Complete confidentiality was agreed and kept, and anonymity was secured for data transcription.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Patient consent for publication Obtained.

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