Objective To assess the impact of preconception alcohol consumption on risk of miscarriage incidence, and further evaluate the association between maternal periconception drinking abstinence and miscarriage.
Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study in China between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2016. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in standard questionnaires. Participants who became pregnant were recontacted for pregnancy outcome information within 1 year. A total 4 531 680 women with available data on preconception alcohol intake and miscarriage were included in the final analyses. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Results The prevalence of miscarriage was 2.70% among 4 531 680 women. Compared with non-drinkers, the adjusted OR of miscarriage was 1.06 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.10) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.20) in maternal occasional drinkers and regular drinkers, respectively. Compared with couples in which neither the male nor the female consumed alcohol, the adjusted OR for miscarriage among women was 1.09 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.10), 1.13 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.21) and 1.12 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.17) in the couples in which only the female drank alcohol, only the male drank alcohol, and both drank alcohol, respectively. The adjusted OR was 0.58 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.65) in women with alcohol abstinence compared with alcohol drinkers.
Conclusions Preconception alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of miscarriage, and an increasing risk was found with paternal and maternal alcohol drinking. Periconception alcohol abstinence was inversely associated with miscarriage.
- reproductive health
Data availability statement
Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available.
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JC, TG and YD are joint first authors.
Contributors YY and XM conceived the study, provided overall guidance and revised the manuscript. JC, TG and YY have full access to data in the study and take responsibility for data integrity and the accuracy of data analysis. JC and YY designed and supervised the study. TG and QX led the data collection. TG analysed the data and interpreted the results. TG and YD searched the literature and drafted the manuscript. LJ, JZ, ZP, YH, YW, YaZ, HZ, QW, HS, YipingZ and DY collected the data. YD, TG and YY revised the manuscript. All authors contributed to the critical revisions of the manuscript.
Funding This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Programme of China (No. 2016YFC1000307) and the CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (No. 2018-I2M-1–004).
Disclaimer The sponsors had no role in the study design, data analysis, data interpretation, writing of the report or the decision to submit the report for publication.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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