Table 1

Characteristics of the primary papers referred to in this review

ReferenceQualityData collection methodSample sizeGenderAgeEthnicityGeographical location
Allen (2004)11PoorFocus groups and interviewsn=28
School nurses grades E,F,G,H
NSNSNSTwo localities: one urban, one mixed urban/rural
Baraitser et al. (2003)16GoodInterviews + staff survey open question datan=46
Young people
M = 4
F = 42
12 <16 years; 19 16–19 years; 15 20–25 years8 White British, 8 Black Caribbean, 6 Black British, 6 Black AfricanNS
Barrett & Harper (2000)72GoodInterviewsn=24
18 community pharmacists, 6 GPs
M = 21
F = 3
Mid-20s to late-50s16 Asian origin, 8 WhiteThree Health Authorities in South Thames region
Bell & Millward (1999)30GoodInterviewsn=8
Women who had asked for EC at a GP practice
NS18–34 yearsNSSouth West England. Practice located in a city centre and close to a university
Bissell & Anderson (2003)25HighInterviews + focus groupsn=35
M = 14
F = 18
18 years to late-50sWhite British, South Asian, Chinese, Black British, British AsianNS
Bissell et al. (2006)36GoodInterviewsn=44
Community pharmacists supplying EHC
M = 32
F = 12
Early 20s to late-50sEthnic mix of South Asian, White British and ChineseManchester, Salford, Trafford, Lambeth, Southwark, Lewisham
Bloxham (1997)43PoorCase study design
Staff from community health service, health promotion, youth and community service, and 4 secondary schools
NSNSNSMedium sized town in the North of England
Burack (2000)59Surveyn=1045
School students
NS13–15 yearsNSNS
Chambers et al. (2002)68Workshop + surveyn=66
Young people
36% M12–20 yearsNSMostly from deprived wards
Coleman & Testa (2008)58GoodInterviewsn=50
Young people
NS16–23 yearsBlack and minority ethnicLondon
Craig & Stanley (2006)38PoorMultiple (3) case studies. Group discussions + individual interviewsn=63
Group discussions. School students and those outside mainstream provision
Individual interviews with ‘transient’ young people, young parents and professionals
NS12–18 yearsNS‘Rural hinterland’ areas of seaside towns in the Midlands, North of England and South of England. Described as having relatively high teenage conception rates
Croghan (2006)57PoorMixed method. Interviews + surveyn=8
Young people
M = 5
F = 3
16–21 years1 White Irish, 1 mixed race, 1 Afro-Caribbean, 3 PakistaniNS
Donovan et al. (1997)53Survey – part of an evaluation of a novel sex education programmen=4481
Students from 30 schools
51.6% M15–16 yearsNSNS
Donnelly (2000)24GoodFocus groupsn=35
Attendees of youth units. Users and non-users of existing sexual health services
M = 12
F = 23
15–25 yearsNSNorthern Ireland. Area of above average rate of teenage pregnancy
Fairhurst et al. (200444)GoodInterviewsn=44
GP or primary care nurses
Women who had received EC supplies
NSNSNSLothian Scotland
Fallon (2003)35GoodInterviewsn=5
Nurses in 3 A&E departments
NSNSNSNorth West England
Folkes et al. (2001)26GoodInterviewsn=27
Young women, use of EHC varied from never to 9 times
NS18–29 yearsNSUrban area, South West England
Free et al. (2005)49HighInterviewsn=30
Young pregnant women or mothers
NS16–25 years21 White British, 4 Afro-Caribbean, 2 Black British, 3 White otherLondon
Free et al. (2002)48GoodInterviewsn=30
Women recruited from GPs, hostels, youth groups, FPCs, schools
NS16–25 yearsNSLondon
French et al. (2006)9PoorInterviews + telephone interviewsn=11
Key informants involved in developing the National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV
French (2002)67HighInterviews and focus groups + clinic observationn=32
Focus groups with clinic clients, school pupils
Observations nurses, doctors, health visitor
M = 28
F = 32
16–21 yearsNSCamden and Islington, London
French et al. (2005)28HighInterview + focus groupsInterviews
Young people
Focus groups with professionals or community representatives
n=33 young people
n=11 parents
M = 30
F = 48
13–21 yearsBangladeshi, Indian, JamaicanLondon, Manchester, Birmingham
French et al. (2007)14Surveyn=8879
Young people
50% M13–21 yearsNSNS
Garside et al. (2002)60PoorSurvey + focus groups18 focus groups of teenagers, 4–9 participants in each groupNSNSNSDevon
Garside et al. (2000)63Surveyn=235
Griffiths et al. (2008)29GoodInterviews and focus groupsn=19
Interviews with minority ethnic individuals
Focus group participants
NS16–21 yearsNS9 sites across England with high residential occupancy and higher than average deprivation scores
Hagley et al. (2002)40Surveyn=587
Students from 19 schools
F = 214
M = 373
Average age 16 yearsNSNS
Hayter (2005)45GoodMixed method. Survey + interviewsn=20
Clients of sexual health nursing outreach clinics
NS13–18 yearsNSDoncaster
Higginbottom et al. (2006)41HighInterviews, focus groups and telephone interviewsn=19
Focus group participants young mothers
Interview participants young mothers
Interviews with young fathers
Interviews with grandmothers
Service providers interviewed by telephone
NSUp to 19 years and in 20sAfrican-Caribbean origin, multiple ethnicity, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Yemeni, Somali, TurkishBradford, Sheffield, London
Hoggart (2006)64Interviews + focus groupsn not specified (between 37–47)
Focus groups
Interviews with 12 young mothers + 1 young person who had a termination
Interviews with professionals from different agencies
NS14–21 yearsMixed ethnicityNS
Ingram & Salmon (2007)13HighMixed method. Interviews + attendance data + surveyn=18
Clinic attendees
F = 15
M = 3
14–18 yearsNSAreas of social deprivation with high rates of teenage conceptions + suburb of 1 large town + 1 small rural town
Jolley (2001)70PoorSurvey (some free text questions) + interviewn=10
Nurses working in a gynaecology unit
Jones et al. (1997)56GoodFocus groupsn=61
School pupils
NS14–15 yearsNSCardiff
Lester & Allan (2006)22GoodFocus groupsn=32
Students at 3 schools
M = 16
F = 16
14–15 yearsNSArea of high chlamydia prevalence
Mackereth & Forder (1996)46PoorFocus groupsn=40
Young people
NS11–16 yearsNSGateshead
Mackie et al. (2002)32PoorInterviews. 10 in person, 3 telephone interviewsn=13 staff
5 representatives of the local health board, 4 from the local FP service, 4 representing pharmaceutical retailers
Mason (2005)66GoodInterviewsn=8
5 nurses, 3 counsellors
FNSNSNorth West England, one major city centre and one in small town service. Described as mixed population with areas of high deprivation and pockets of wealth
McCann et al. (2008)65PoorSurvey, interviews, focus groupsn=22
Key informants. 4 focus groups, 1 practice nurse, 3 school nurses
NSNSNSRural area of Northern Ireland with high percentage of young people under 20 years and rising rate of STI
Morrison et al. (1997)10PoorInterviewsn=368
Clinic clients and other young people
More F than MMean age 17 yearsNSGlasgow. 55% Carstairs Deprivation Category 1–4 and 45% Category 5–7
Nwokolo et al. (2009)7Peer designed surveyn=744
Students at 6 secondary schools and one PRU
294 M
450 F
11–18 yearsNSNS
Parkes et al. (2004)37Surveyn=5747
Students at 47 schools
NS15–16 yearsNSNS
Pearson & Pearson (2003)23GoodFocus groupsn=75
Both users and non-users of services
100% M13–21 yearsNSEngland. Urban, semiurban and rural locations
Pearson (1995)39Surveyn=167NSMean age 17 yearsNSNS
Pitts et al. (1996)33GoodInterviewsn=19
5 GPs, 5 practice nurses/FP nurses; 4 school nurses; 5 community medical officers
NS30–55 yearsNSNS
Powell (2008)55GoodSurvey and focus groupsn=57
3 secondary schools and 6 out of school youth settings
M = 37
F = 20
12–19 yearsNSCardiff, southern area of the city described as encompassing the 16 most deprived districts of the city
Reeves et al. (2006)69Surveyn=360
3 schools
M = 17315–16 years97% WhiteNS
Ross et al. (2007)42Survey542 community interviewees, 202 clinic patients49% F16–25 years60% WhiteNS
Salmon & Ingram (2008)31GoodMixed method. Survey + interviews with service providers/managers and focus groups with young peoplen=222
10 schools
Individuals from 3 schools attended focus groups or interviews, both users and non-users of the service
Interviews with 2 staff managers, 2 nurses, 3 youth workers
F = 27
M = 17
Years 7, 8, 10, 11NSBristol, reported as being deprived areas with high incidence of teenage pregnancy
Samangaya et al. (2007)54SurveyYoung men100% M16–28 years42% Pakistani, 18% Bangladeshi, 13% Indian, 11% Black Caribbean, 9% Black African, 7% mixed raceNS
Schubotz et al. (2003)50GoodInterviewsn=15NS14–25 yearsNSNorthern Ireland
Sixsmith et al. (2006)21GoodMixed method. Interviews + surveyn=6
Young people from youth clubs, parks, residential streets, school districts, nightclubs/pub, shopping areas
M = 4
F = 2
14–19 yearsNSGreater Manchester
Stanley (2005)62GoodInterviewsn=467
Young people excluded from school, transient resident young people, young people from minority ethnic groups and with special needs
Interviews with young parents
Interviews with local professionals
NS12–17 yearsNS3 seaside towns and associated rural hinterlands in the Midlands, North and South of England
Stone & Ingham (2003)52Surveyn=74788.8% FMedian age 17 years, mean age 19 years95.4% WhiteNS
Thomas et al. (2006)61Surveyn=295
Students from 4 schools
48% M13–14 yearsNSNS
van Teijlingen et al. (2007)47GoodFocus groupsn=3250% M12–13 years & 16/17 yearsNSAberdeen and Edinburgh
Wellings et al. (2007)2Surveyn=169
Nurse practitioners
74% F74% under 50 yearsNS31% working in a socially disadvantaged area
Ziebland & Maxwell (1998)27GoodSurvey + interviewsn=53
Women attending for EC
NSMean age 21 yearsNSOxford and London
Ziebland et al. (1998)34GoodTelephone interviewsn=76 GPs, M = 55, F = 21NSNSNS3 health authorities
Ziebland et al. (2005)51HighInterviewsn=22
Women who had received a supply of EHC
  • A&E, accident & emergency; EC, emergency contraception; EHC, emergency hormonal contraception; F, female; FP, family planning: FPC, family planning clinic; GP, general practitioner; M, male; NS, not stated; PRU, pupil referral unit; STI, sexually transmitted infections.