Table 3

Main themes and subthemes

ThemeSubthemeParticipant classification
No Change – Always AttendPositive Change – Lapsed AttendanceNo Change – Lapsed Attendance
Past cervical screening
BarriersAccess – time, appointments
Procedure – uncomfortable, painful
Fear, guilt
Not a priority – family, work commitments
Knowledge – lack of information
FacilitatorsGeneral prevention beliefs
Cancer awareness
Family/friend cancer history
Encouragement from significant others – own mother, husband
Opportunistic screening – postnatal check-up
Time available
Jade Goody
Daughters’ HPV vaccination
Information provisionConsent form/invitation letter
Department of Health leaflets – received
 Would have been useful
Own research carried out:
 Discussion with others (friends, family, health professionals)
Media – news, TV, magazines
KnowledgeHPV link to cervical cancer
Link to herpes/wart virus
Number of doses
Sexual transmission
Screening and vaccination interlinked
Purpose of screening – early detection of abnormalities
Barriers to vaccination consentNot enough information on side effects
Daughter fear of the needle
Lifestyle implications – sex
Facilitators to vaccination consentGeneral prevention beliefs
Cancer awareness
Family/friend cancer history
Free and available
Part of a national programme
Others having it – follow the crowd
Youth promiscuity
Jade Goody
Mothers’ cervical screening history
Vaccination discussion with daughterDaughters’ concerns
Cancer prevention
Family/friend cancer history
Jade Goody
Sex – safe sex, relationships,
Cervical screening
Influence of HPV vaccination on future cervical screening intentionsReminder
Realisation of sexual transmission of virus – reassessment of risk
Setting an example for daughter
To be there for her family in the future
Daughter now prompts mother for cervical screening
Learning about cervical screening from discussion with others
  • HPV, human papillomavirus.