Table 2

Demographic characteristics and ultrasound features of the population at the time of intrauterine device removal

Demographic characteristics/ultrasound featuresn (%)*
Age (median, IQR)41 (37–49)
Menstrual history
 Postmenopausal9 (39)
 Amenorrhoea8 (35)
 Luteal phase of menstrual cycle3 (13)
 Proliferative phase of menstrual cycle2 (9)
 Irregular vaginal bleeding1 (4)
 Nulliparous6 (26)
 Parity (median, range)2 (1–4)
Previous Caesarean section9 (39)
Uterine position
 Anteverted17 (74)
 Retroverted6 (26)
Uterine morphology
 Normal14 (60)
 Uterus enlarged by multiple IM/SS fibroids5 (22)
 Uterus with a single IM/SS fibroid2 (9)
 Single SM fibroid1 (4)
 Adenomyosis1 (4)
IUD type
 Mirena® IUS17 (74)
 Copper IUD5 (22)
 Ring IUD1 (4)
IUD removal attempt before referral9 (39)
IUD position
 Correctly placed at the centre of the uterine cavity20 (87)
 Embedded in the myometrium2 (9)
 Partially expelled into the cervical canal1 (4)
Threads position
 Retracted into the upper half of the cervical canal10 (43)
 Retracted into the lower half of the cervical canal6 (26)
 Not visualised7 (30)
  • *Values are n (%) unless stated otherwise.

  • IM, intramural; IQR, interquartile range; IUD, intrauterine device; IUS, intrauterine system; SM, submucous; SS, subserous.