Table 2

Quality assessment rating for studies included in the review

StudyInternal validity*External validity*Overall assessment score†
Daley et al (2015)31§
Barnack-Tavlaris et al (2016)29
Bertram & Magnussen (2008)30
Kosenko et al (2012)32
Kahn et al(2005)33
Lin et al (2011)34§
McCaffery & Irwig (2005)35
McCaffery et al (2006)24
McCurdy et al (2011)37
Newton & McCabe (2008)38§
Parente Sa Barreto et al (2016)39§
Perrin et al (2006)40
Waller et al (2007)36
  • *For quantitative studies.

  • †For qualitative studies.

  • ‡Indicates that the study was designed or conducted in such a way as to minimise the risk of bias.

  • §Indicates that the study was partly designed to minimise bias, may not have addressed all potential sources of bias, or it was not clear from the way the study was reported.

  • ¶Indicates that the study had significant sources of bias across all aspects of the study design.