Table 1

Characteristics of studies measuring disclosure-related outcomes included in the review

ReferenceCountryYears study conductedAge (years)Participants (n)Study designStudy populationDisclosure outcomes reported
Daley et al (2015)31 USA2003–2005Men: 18–66 Women: 18–65344Questionnaire completed following receipt of an HPV-positive resultWomen (n=154) attending a student health service clinic and planned parenthood clinics for a gynaecological examination and Pap smear
Men (n=190) participating in the HPV in men study (HIM)*
Anticipated psychological impact of disclosure
Barnack-Tavlaris et al (2016)29 USA2013Not specified127 blog postsContent analysis of HPV blog postsIndividuals who posted a blog to the Experience Project website experience of “I have HPV”Anticipated psychological impact of disclosure
Bertram & Magnussen (2008)30 USANot specified18–6510Unstructured interviewsWomen with a history of an abnormal Pap smear recruited at the time of their annual gynaecological examination from a women’s health clinic in HawaiiAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure, when is disclosure necessary?, managing disclosure
Kosenko et al (2012)32 USANot specified19–5625Semi-structured interviewsWomen answering an advertisement posted online (on social media websites and online support groups) and in community centres, libraries, restaurants, coffee shops, supermarkets and buildings in college campuses in cities in the southeastern United States about the stress and coping of women with HPVAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure, managing disclosure
Kahn et al. (2005)33 USA200214–21, mean: 17.2100Individual interviewsWomen attending an urban, hospital-based teen health centre who were tested for HPVAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure
Lin et al (2011)34 Taiwan200827–5620Semi-structured interviewsWomen attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic of a university-based hospital in Taipei, TaiwanWhen is disclosure necessary?, managing disclosure
McCaffery & Irwig (2005)35 Australia2002Range unknown, 53% were <35 years, 47% were >35 years19In-depth, unstructured interviewsWomen attending family planning clinics, general practice and specialist gynaecologist practices in Sydney, Australia, and the surrounding areaAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure, When is disclosure necessary?
McCaffery et al (2006)24 UK2001–2003Age categories reported:
20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–64
74In-depth interviewsWomen taking part in clinic clinical trials of HPV testing or attending colposcopy clinics where HPV testing is carried outAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure, when is disclosure necessary?, managing disclosure
McCurdy et al (2011)37 USA2003–200418–47 (women that the article focuses on were aged between 21 and 45)42 (article focuses on 18 women who were aware of their HPV status)In-depth interviewsWomen attending three private primary care clinics who were found to have atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion as well as a high-risk HPV typeAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure
Newton & McCabe (2008)38 AustraliaNot specified19–5960 (30 with genital herpes, 30 with HPV)Semi-structured interviewsMen (n=30) and women (n=30) responding to an advertisement about the study posted on STI websites, support groups and online STI communitiesAnticipated psychological impact of anticipated disclosure, when is disclosure necessary?
Parente Sa Barreto et al (2016)39 Brazil201220–4214Semi-structured interviewsWomen attending a Specialised Medical Carer Service unit (a public service supporting sexual and reproductive care). Women were excluded from the study if they were attending the unit for the first timeAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure, managing disclosure
Perrin et al (2006)40 USANot specified18–4452In-depth, semi-structured interviewsWomen diagnosed as having one or more types of HPV attending one of three clinical sites (two Planned Parenthood clinics or the Student Health Service clinic at the University of South Florida) for an annual gynaecological examinationAnticipated psychological impact of disclosure, managing disclosure
Waller et al (2007)36 UK200321–6430In-depth, semi-structured interviewsWomen taking part in the ARTISTIC trial of HPV testing (a randomised trial of HPV testing in primary cervical screening)Anticipated psychological impact of disclosure
  • *The focus of this review was women’s concerns about disclosing HPV and therefore the findings from men taking part in this study were not included in the review.

  • HPV, human papillomavirus; STI, sexually transmitted infection.