EP vs NPEP vs OP
Paired t-test (t, p)17.04, <0.00113.20, <0.001
Comparative mean (% of responses, average Δ)
 +Δ10.45%, 1.2612.20%, 1.90
 No change26.82%35.63%
 –Δ62.72%, 1.7852.17%, 1.44
Pearson’s correlation (r, p)0.205, <0.0010.199, <0.001
Multiple linear regression with age as confounding (p, 95% CI, R2)<0.001, 0.094 to 0.225, 0.046<0.001, 0.101 to 0.254, 0.040
  • - Δ, average decrease in score; + Δ, average increase in score; EP, expected pain; NP, needle pain; OP, operative pain.