Table 2

Factors associated with the acceptability of video consultations, webchats and chatbots

VariableVideo consultationWebchatAI chatbot
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Demographic variables
Gender
 Male1.11 (0.71 to 1.98)0.99 (0.93 to 1.21)1.38 (0.91 to 2.01)
 Female1
Age (years)
 <251.77 (1.06 to 2.93)*2.43 (1.35 to 4.38)*1.01 (0.61 to 1.68)
 >25111
Education
 A/AS level or below0.79 (0.45 to 1.36)0.86 (0.46 to 1.62)1.40 (0.83 to 2.44)
 Degree or above111
Ethnicity
 White1.10 (0.49 to 2.47)2.87 (1.30 to 6.34)*1.33 (0.59 to 3.00)
 Non-white111
Employment
 Employed (full-time and part-time)1.38 (0.89 to 2.32)1.03 (0.57 to 1.85)1.68 (0.98 to 2.90)
 Unemployed or student111
Diagnosed with an STI in the past
 Yes2.05 (1.07 to 3.95)*1.18 (0.58 to 2.39)0.71 (0.38 to 1.33)
 No111
Diagnosed with HIV
 Yes1.15 (0.35 to 3.63)0.75 (0.22 to 2.56)1.76 (0.55 to 5.23)
 No111
Perceived having STI symptoms
 Yes1.68 (1.01 to 2.84)*0.97 (0.54 to 1.75)0.58 (0.34 to 0.97)*
 No111
Distance from GUM clinic
 <30 min drive1.09 (0.54 to 2.17)0.66 (0.28 to 1.53)0.92 (0.46 to 1.82)
 >1 hour drive111
Utilisation of technology variables
Smartphone ownership
 Yes16.0 (3.64 to 70.5)*6.46 (2.47 to 16.8)*4.58 (1.31 to 16.0)*
 No111
Preferred medium for health promotion
 Mobile phone app1.95 (1.13 to 3.35)*1.49 (0.82 to 2.69)1.45 (0.86 to 2.45)
 Website111
 Method of booking appointment
 Using online booking system1.44 (0.71 to 2.91)2.41 (0.96 to 6.04)1.79 (0.90 to 3.56)
 By phone or walk-in111
Acceptability/willingness variables
To use video consultation (eg, Skype)
 Yes018.7 (8.52 to 41.0)*3.86 (2.17 to 6.84)*
 No011
To use live webchat with an advisor
 Yes18.7 (8.52 to 41.0)*03.74 (1.90 to 7.37)*
 No101
To use AI-enabled chatbot
 Yes3.86 (2.17 to 6.84)*3.74 (1.90 to 7.37)*0
 No110
To have an app for sexual health
 Yes2.44 (1.45 to 4.11)*3.73 (2.05 to 6.79)*2.24 (1.30 to 3.79)*
 No111
To consent for consultation to be recorded
 Yes26.6 (6.09 to 11.6)*15.6 (7.83 to 31.1)*4.13 (2.23 to 7.65)*
 No111
To enter symptoms onto an online form
 Yes2.70 (1.35 to 5.40)*3.75 (1.81 to 7,74)*3.86 (1.63 to 9.17)*
 No111
Confidence in the security of NHS digital health records
 Yes1.15 (0.68 to 1.94)1.24 (0.69 to 2.24)1.36 (0.80 to 2.29)
 No111
  • 1 denotes reference category for logistic regression. *p<0.05.

  • A/AS, level of education; AI, artificial intelligence; CI, confidence interval; GUM, genitourinary medicine; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; NHS, National Health Service; OR, odds ratio; STI, sexually transmitted infection.