Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of refugee and displaced youth by sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing services awareness and lifetime STI testing uptake in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda (n=445)

VariablesFull sample
(n (%) or mean (SD, range)) (n=445)
Aware of community STI testing services
(n (%) or mean (SD, range))(n=195)
Not aware of community STI testing services
(n (%) or mean (SD, range)) (n=250)
P valueLifetime STI testing (ever)
(n (%) or mean (SD, range)) (n=116)
Lifetime STI testing (never)
(n (%) or mean (SD, range)) (n=329)
P value
Sociodemographic factors
Gender0.9860.005
 Women333 (74.8)146 (74.9)187 (74.8)98 (84.5)235 (71.4)
 Men112 (25.2)49 (25.1)63 (25.2)18 (16.1)94 (28.6)
Age (years)19.31 (2.56, 16–24)20.43 (2.66, 16–24)18.94 (2.35, 16–24)0.00020.02 (2.49, 16–24)18.45 (2.39, 16–24)0.000
Education0.0680.052
 Less than secondary school234 (52.6)93 (47.7)141 (56.4)52 (44.8)182 (55.3)
 Post-secondary education211 (47.4)102 (52.3)109 (43.6)64 (55.2)147 (44.7)
Place of birth0.7380.219
 South Sudan35 (7.9)18 (9.2)17 (6.8)10 (28.6)25 (7.6)
 Burundi115 (25.8)48 (24.6)67 (26.8)22 (19.1)93 (28.3)
 DRC249 (56.0)106 (54.4)143 (57.2)74 (29.7)175 (53.2)
 Rwanda19 (4.3)10 (5.1)9 (3.6)3 (15.8)16 (4.9)
 Other27 (6.1)23 (6.7)14 (5.6)7 (57.9)20 (6.1)
Time in Uganda (years)0.0190.004
 >135 (7.9)8 (4.1)27 (10.8)7 (6.0)28 (8.5)
 1–5265 (59.6)126 (64.6)139 (55.6)84 (72.4)181 (55.0)
 <5145 (32.6)61 (31.3)87 (33.6)25 (21.6)120 (36.5)
Immigration status (n=442)0.1060.441
 Refugees391 (88.5)177 (91.2)214 (86.3)104 (90.4)287 (87.8)
 Asylum-seeking51 (11.5)17 (8.8)34 (13.7)11 (9.6)40 (12.2)
Relationship status0.0020.014
 No current partner187 (42.0)70 (36.3)117 (51.1)39 (34.2)148 (48.1)
 Dating one partner/married185 (41.6)91 (47.2)94 (41.0)63 (55.3)122 (39.6)
 Casual dating/multiple partners50 (11.2)32 (16.6)18 (7.9)12 (10.5)38 (12.3)
Employment (n=428)0.0000.000
 Unemployed176 (38.6)93 (49.7)83 (34.4)65 (56.5)111 (35.5)
 Student190 (42.7)52 (27.8)138 (57.3)34 (29.6)156 (49.8)
 Employed62 (13.9)42 (22.5)20 (8.3)16 (13.9)46 (14.7)
STI outcomes
Lifetime STI testing
 No329 (73.9)
 Yes116 (26.1)
STI diagnosis history (n=114)
 Gonorrhoea10 (8.8)
 Syphilis7 (6.1)
 Herpes17 (14.9)
 More than two STIs11 (9.6)
 I do not know18 (15.8)
 None51 (44.7)
Intrapersonal factors
Transactional sex in past 12 months (n=412)0.9600.849
 No284 (68.9)125 (69.1)159 (68.8)78 (69.6)206 (68.7)
 Yes128 (31.1)56 (30.9)72 (31.2)34 (30.4)94 (31.4)
Lifetime multiple sexual partners (n=251)0.0000.004
 No258 (58.0)89 (45.6)169 (67.6)54 (46.6)204 (62.0)
 Yes187 (42.0)106 (54.4)81 (32.4)62 (53.4)125 (38.0)
Ever used drugs/alcohol while having sex (n=251)0.0090.683
 No182 (72.5)88 (48.4)94 (51.6)22 (31.9)47 (68.1)
 Yes69 (27.5)46 (66.7)23 (33.3)63 (34.6)119 (65.4)
Interpersonal factors
Lifetime forced sex0.0920.006
 No354 (79.6)148 (75.9)206 (82.4)82 (70.7)272 (82.7)
 Yes91 (20.4)47 (24.1)44 (17.6)34 (29.3)57 (17.3)
Condom use self-efficacy19.33 (7.83, 7–35)19.74 (7.51, 7–35)19.01 (8.07, 7–35)0.32620.75 (7.79, 7–35)18.83 (7.80, 7–35)0.023
Community factors
Adolescent SRH stigma subscales
 Sexual activity and pregnancy stigma subscale5.55 (1.94, 0–7)5.08 (2,23, 0-7)5.91 (1.59, 0–7)0.0005.05 (2.49, 0–7)5.72 (1.68, 0–7)0.001
 Modern family planning and abortion stigma subscale5.37 (1.68, 0–6)5.08 (1.74, 0–7)5.59 (1.59, 0–7)0.0205.14 (1.85,0–7)5.45 (1.61, 0–7)0.088
HIV-related stigma31.48 (6.05, 10–40)30.56 (5.62, 10–40)32.19 (5.62, 13–40)0.00530.93 (5.69, 10–40)31.67 (5.68, 10–40)0.267
Food insecurity0.3100.001
 No125 (28.1)50 (25.6)75 (30.0)19 (16.4)106 (32.2)
 Yes320 (71.9)145 (74.4)175 (70.0)97 (83.6)223 (67.8)
  • Higher condom use self-efficacy scores indicated higher confidence in using condoms.

  • * p<0.050, ** p<0.010, *** p<0.001

  • DRC, Democratic Republic of Congo; STI, sexually transmitted infection.