Table 3

Risk of bias assessment according to the seven biases included in the ROBINS-I tool

Study authors (year)Bias 1Bias 2Bias 3Bias 4Bias 5Bias 6Bias 7
Briozzo et al (2006)4UnclearUnclearLowLowHighUnclearUnclear
Labandera et al (2016)14UnclearUnclearLowUnclearHighUnclearUnclear
Kahabuka et al (2017)15HighHighLowUnclearHighUnclearUnclear
Grossman et al (2018)16UnclearHighLowUnclearHighHighLow