Table 5

Methodological quality of the included quantitative studies using the MMAT.24

Is a clear research question defined?Are the data fitting the research questions?Is the sampling strategy relevant to address research question?Is the sample representative of the target population?Are the measurements appropriate?Is the risk of non-response bias low?Are the statistical analysis appropriate to answer the research question?
Gerend, 201732YesYesYes*Cannot tell†Yes‡Cannot tellYes
Jayasinghe, 201636YesYesYes§NoYes‡YesYes
Ogilvie, 201334YesYesYes§No¶Yes‡YesYes
Saraiya, 201833YesYesYes*Cannot tell†Yes‡Cannot tellYes
Silver, 201531YesCannot tellNo§No¶Yes‡YesYes
Smith, 202137YesYesYes§Cannot tellYes‡No**Yes
Thompson, 202035YesYesYes*Cannot tell†Yes‡YesYes
  • *Participants were recruited through an online panel.

  • †Population was preselected for, for example, age, sex, ethnicity and region. Still, there was no chance of involving women who had, for example, no affinity with computers.

  • ‡Questionnaires; the questions the participants were asked were susceptible to bias.38

  • §Population originally recruited for another study question (in a larger trial).

  • ¶The original study sample consisted only of women who participated in cervical cancer screening. Non-attenders were not involved.

  • **<50% of the eligible women from the original study population participated (38%).37

  • MMAT, Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool;