Table 5

Methodological quality of the included quantitative studies using the MMAT.24

Is a clear research question defined?Are the data fitting the research questions?Is the sampling strategy relevant to address research question?Is the sample representative of the target population?Are the measurements appropriate?Is the risk of non-response bias low?Are the statistical analysis appropriate to answer the research question?
Gerend, 201732 YesYesYes*Cannot tell†Yes‡Cannot tellYes
Jayasinghe, 201636 YesYesYes§NoYes‡YesYes
Ogilvie, 201334 YesYesYes§No¶Yes‡YesYes
Saraiya, 201833 YesYesYes*Cannot tell†Yes‡Cannot tellYes
Silver, 201531 YesCannot tellNo§No¶Yes‡YesYes
Smith, 202137 YesYesYes§Cannot tellYes‡No**Yes
Thompson, 202035 YesYesYes*Cannot tell†Yes‡YesYes
  • *Participants were recruited through an online panel.

  • †Population was preselected for, for example, age, sex, ethnicity and region. Still, there was no chance of involving women who had, for example, no affinity with computers.

  • ‡Questionnaires; the questions the participants were asked were susceptible to bias.38

  • §Population originally recruited for another study question (in a larger trial).

  • ¶The original study sample consisted only of women who participated in cervical cancer screening. Non-attenders were not involved.

  • **<50% of the eligible women from the original study population participated (38%).37

  • MMAT, Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool;