Table 1

Key study characteristics of the included studies

Author, year/countryData collectionStudy
Start (m/y)–end (m/y)
N (women)Age range (y)EthnicityStudy populationPhenomena of interest
Qualitative study design
Dodd, 2020/ Australia29 Semistructured interviews12/18–12/1826<35–>6622/26 Born in Australia
4/26 Not born in Australia
  • HPV status: 15/26 positive, 8/26 negative, 3/26 unsure

  • 9/26 HPV vaccinated

  • Relationship status: 13/26 married or living with partner, 5/26 single or dating, 7/26 separated, divorced or widowed

Understanding the screening purpose
McCaffery, 2003/UK26 Focus group discussions07/00–09/007120–5916/71 African-Caribbean
19/71 Indian
20/71 Pakistani
16/71 White British
41/71 Not born in UK
  • Women eligible for cervical cancer screening; without any history of CIN or previous total hysterectomy

  • None of the women in this study were offered HPV tests or had previously participated in HPV-based screening

  • Relationship status: 44/71 married or living with a partner

Understanding the implication of a positive finding; understanding the screening purpose
McCaffery, 2006/ England27 In-depth interviews06/01-12/037420–6441/74 White British 17/74 South Asian
16/74 African Caribbean
  • Women participating in HPV-based screening; all had received their HPV result

  • HPV status: 57/74 positive, 17/74 negative

  • Relationship status: 45/74 married or in a relationship (with or without cohabiting)

Understanding the implication of a positive finding; understanding the screening purpose
Nagendiram, 2020/ Australia30 Semistructured interviews03/19–04/191420–58No information provided
  • 12/14 Participate in screening, 2/14 are under-screened according to the guideline

Understanding the screening purpose
Patel, 2018/ England28 Semistructured interviews, focus group discussions04/15–12/164625–6520/46 White British
26/46 White Eastern European
  • Women participating in a screening programme, which already includes HPV-based screening

  • Some have experienced abnormal smear results and some have not

  • Relationship status: 36 married or in a relationship

Understanding the personal risk; understanding the implication of a positive finding; understanding the screening purpose
Quantitative study design (observational)
Gerend, 2017/ USA32 Online questionnaire via mail201431321–6559/313 Non-white
250/313 White
38/313 Hispanic/Latina ethnicity
  • Relationship status: 187/313 married or living as married

  • 19/313 Never had a Pap test

  • 80/313 History of abnormal Pap test

  • 20/313 Previous HPV infection

  • 38/313 Received at least one dose of HPV vaccine

  • All participants were informed that HPV-based screening could one day replace Pap testing to become the principal method for cervical cancer screening

Jayasinghe, 2016/ Australia36 Online questionnaire02/14–03/1419916–28118/199 Born in Australia
  • Women participated in the Young Female Health Initiative study

  • 101/199 Received at least one dose of HPV vaccine

  • 50/199 Never had a Pap test

Ogilvie, 2013/ Canada34 Online questionnaire05/11–09/1198125–6581/981 Chinese
24/981 Aboriginal
876/981 Caucasian and other
  • Women participated in the HPV FOCAL study

  • Relationship status: 689/981 married

Saraiya, 2018/ USA33 Online questionnaire09/15130918–>65997/1309 White
124/1309 Black
131/1309 Hispanic
57/1309 Other
  • 146/1,309 Received HPV vaccination

  • 67/1,309 Previous HPV infection

Silver, 2015/ USA31 Interviewer-administered survey03/08–03/1155136–62420/551 White
91/551 Black
40/551 Other
  • Women enrolled in HPV in Perimenopause Study

  • 260/551 Reported having an abnormal Pap smear prior to study enrolment; 131/551 ever had colposcopy

  • 545/551 Reported having a Pap smear within the past 3 years

  • 386/551 Reported sex with a steady partner at study enrolment

  • Relationship status: 356/551 married

Understanding the screening purpose
Smith, 2021/ Canada37 Online questionnaire08/17–02/18553225–65No detailed information provided (reflects the North American population)
  • Women enrolled from both arms (HPV- or cytology-based screening) in the HPV FOCAL study

  • All women were provided with information about HPV, HPV testing and cervical cancer

  • Relationship status: 3806/5336 living with a partner

Acceptance; understanding the implication of a positive finding; understanding the screening purpose
Thompson, 2020/ USA35 Online questionnaire201881230–65187/812 Black/African American
553/812 White/Caucasian
151/812 Hispanic/Latina
  • Relationship status: 404/812 married

Acceptance; understanding the screening purpose
  • CIN, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; HPV, Human papillomavirus; m, month; y, year(s).