Table 1

Sample characteristics of included studies in the global systematic literature review examining postpartum intrauterine device use and effectiveness and safety outcomes (n=133)

First author, publication yearIncome categoryStudy arms/groupsSample sizeAge mean (SD)Age median (range)IUD typeDelivery typeIUD providerIUD insertion techniqueTiming of IUD insertion postpartum
Braniff, 201561HighInsertion time: 10 min2531.0 (4.9)NRHormonalCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonIUD inserterAt caesarean delivery
Boydell, 202062HighOverall35NRNRBothBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNRWithin 48 hours
Chen, 201063HighInsertion time: 10 min5125.4 (5.3)NRHormonalVaginalNRIUD inserter, ring forceps or manually10 min
Cohen, 201656HighOverall8218.8 (1.6)NRBothBothNRNR10 min
Cole, 201942HighOverall116NR26 (IQR 22–30)HormonalBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually, ring forceps or IUD inserter10 min
Colwill, 201839HighDelivery type: CS73NRNRCopperCaesareanNRManually10 min
Colwill, 201839HighDelivery type: VD137NRNRCopperVaginalNRRing forceps10 min
Colwill, 201839HighOverall21028.3 (5.7)NRCopperBothNRRing forceps or manually10 min
Cooper, 202031HighOverall37930 (NR)NR (16–44)BothVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forcepsFirst 48 hours
Dahlke, 201164HighInsertion time: 10 min1524.8NRHormonalVaginalNRRing forceps10 min
Dahlke, 201164HighInsertion time: 10 min to 48 hours1526NRHormonalVaginalNRRing forceps10 min to 48 hours
Eggebroten, 201765HighIUD type: copper88NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonNR10 min
Eggebroten, 201765HighIUD type: hormonal123NRNRHormonalBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonNR10 min
Gallagher, 201966HighOverall195NRNRBothNRNRNRIntra-caesarean
Goldthwaite, 201767HighIUD type: hormonal6826.2 (5.3)NRHormonalVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerRing forceps or manually10–46 min
Goldthwaite, 201767HighIUD type: copper5527.4 (5.4)NRCopperVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerRing forceps or manually10–46 min
Gonzalez, 202068HighOverall9331.35 (4.96)NRBothCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonIUD inserter or ring forcepsDuring caesarean
Gurney, 201847HighOverall20027.7 (5.1)NRCopperVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps, manually or ring forceps10 min
Gurney, 202069HighOverall10927.9 (4.8)NRCopperCaesareanNRNRIntra-caesarean
Heller, 201730HighOverall877NR33 (21–41)BothCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonIUD inserterIntra-caesarean
Hinz, 201949HighOverall114NRNRBothBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps10 min
Hinz, 201949HighIUD type: hormonal7530.3 (5.2)NRBothBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps10 min
Hinz, 201949HighIUD type: copper3931.5 (6.2)NRBothBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps10 min
Jatlaoui, 201443HighOverall9923.7 (4.6)NRBothVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonIUD inserter or ring forceps10 min
Levi, 201270HighOverall90NR30 (NR)CopperCaesareanAny delivering obstetrical providerRing forceps10 min
Levi, 201570HighOverall11228 (5.7)NRBothCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps or IUD inserter10 min
Moniz, 201971HighOverall396 073NRNRNRNRNRNR36 hours
Ritter, 202172HighOverall87 193NRNRNRNRNRNR‘Immediate postpregnancy IUD placement’
Sinkey, 202173HighOverall159NRNRNRNRNRNR10 min to discharge
Smith, 202127HighOverall700NRNRNRNRNRNR10 min to 7 days
Soon, 201874HighOverall618.33 (1.03)NRHormonalVaginalInvestigatorsManually10 min
Stuart, 201538HighOverall17NR28 (IQR 25–30)HormonalVaginalNRIUD inserter or ring forceps6–48 hours
Turok, 201775HighOverall319NRNRHormonalBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps or Kelly’s forceps30 min
Wallace Huff, 202176HighOverall199NRNR (18–44)NRNRNRNRBefore discharge
Whitaker, 201455HighOverall4227.1 (6.2)NRHormonalCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps10 min
Whiteman, 201228HighOverall92027.4 (NR)NRBothBothNRNRBefore discharge
Woo, 201577HighOverall13327 (NR)NRNRNRNRNR‘Immediate postpartum period’
Wu, 202078HighOverall956128.4 (6.0)NRBothBothNRNRBefore discharge
Ariadi, 201779Upper-middleInsertion technique: non-sutured CS4427.75 (5.22)NRNRCaesareanNRNRIntra-caesarean
Ariadi, 201779Upper-middleInsertion technique: sutured CS4427.95 (5.05)NRNRCaesareanNRNRIntra-caesarean
Çelen, 201158Upper-middleOverall24526.4 (5.6)26 (range 18–41)CopperCaesareanInvestigatorsRing forceps10 min
da Silva, 202080Upper-middleOverall184NRNRNRBothNRNR‘Immediate postpartum period’
da Silva Nobrega, 202181Upper-middleOverall99727.2 (6.9)NRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually10 min
Eser 201882Upper-middleOverall100NR30 (18–40)CopperCaesareanInvestigatorsRing forceps10 min
Gunardi, 202183Upper-middleOverall94NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min
Hochmuller, 202084Upper-middleOverall12426 (IQR 22–32)NRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually, Foerster or De Lee Forceps10 min to 48 hours
Kestler, 201185Upper-middleDelivery type: CS63 188NRNRCopperCaesareanNRNR‘Before hospital discharge’
Kestler, 201185Upper-middleDelivery type: VD155 468NRNRCopperVaginalNRNR‘Before hospital discharge’
Laporte, 202086Upper-middleIUD type: copper70NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonIUD inserter or manually10 min
Laporte, 202086Upper-middleIUD type: hormonal70NRNRHormonalBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps or manually10 min
Marangoni, 202187Upper-middleOverall70NRNRCopperBothNRKelly’s forceps or manually10 min or intracaesarean
Singata-Madliki 201688Upper-middleOverall123NR26.5 (IQR 11–22)CopperNRAny delivering obstetrical providerNR‘Inserted the IUDs according to standard protocols in the immediate postnatal period’
Sucak, 201589Upper-middleDelivery type: CS (emergency)4725.3 (5.2)NRCopperCaesareanInvestigatorsRing forceps10 min
Sucak, 201589Upper-middleDelivery type: VD6226.6 (4.4)NRCopperVaginalInvestigatorsIUD inserter10 min
Sucak, 201589Upper-middleDelivery type: CS (planned)5127.7 (5.1)NRCopperCaesareanInvestigatorsRing forceps10 min
Trigueiro, 202190Upper-middleOverall82825.9 (6.27)NR (14–44)CopperBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Unal 201891Upper-middleInsertion technique: GyneFix70NR30 (22–40)CopperCaesareanInvestigatorsIUD inserter10 min
Unal 201891Upper-middleInsertion technique: sponge forceps70NR32 (20–41)CopperCaesareanInvestigatorsSponge-holding forceps10 min
Zaconeta, 201992Upper-middleOverall10027.7 (5.6) (95% CI 26.6 to 28.7 years)NRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually10 min
Abro 201893Lower-middleOverall22029.66 (3.89)NR; 95% CI 29.14 to 30.18NRVaginalNRNR10 min
Agarwal, 201794Lower-middleIUD type: copper5022.85 (2.59)NRCopperCaesareanInvestigatorsManuallyIntra-caesarean
Agarwal, 201794Lower-middleIUD type: CuT380A5023.4 (2.26)NRCopperCaesareanInvestigatorsManuallyIntra-caesarean
Agrawal, 202195Lower-middleNRNRNRNRNRNRNRNRWithin 48 hours
Akram, 201896Lower-middleOverall10029.42 (3.96)NRNRCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonNR10 min
Alam, 201497Lower-middleOverall10028.1 (4.2)28 (21–39)CopperNRNRManually or IUD inserter10 min
Bayoumi, 202098Lower-middleOverall50031.5 (4.3)NRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forcepsWithin 48 hours
Bhadra 201899Lower-middleOverall19 170NRNRNRBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNR10 min
Bhat 201640Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min
Delivery type: VD
130NRNRCopperVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min
Bhat 201640Lower-middleInsertion time: 48 hours
Delivery type: VD
211NRNRCopperVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Bhat 201640Lower-middleDelivery type: CS339NRNRCopperCaesareanNRManually, ring forceps or IUD inserter10 min
Bhat 201640Lower-middleOverall680NRNRCopperBothNRKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Bhutta, 201145Lower-middleDelivery type: CS50NRNRCopperCaesareanNRManually10 min
Blumenthal 2018100Lower-middleInsertion technique: PPIUD inserter24125 (4)NRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonIUD inserter10 min to 48 hours
Blumenthal 2018100Lower-middleInsertion technique: Kelly forceps23925 (4.6)NRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Blumenthal, 2016101Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 to 15 min74NRNRNRNRTrained nurse/midwifeRing forceps or sponge-holding forceps10 min
Blumenthal, 2016101Lower-middleInsertion time: 15 min to 48 hours217NRNRNRNRTrained nurse/midwifeRing forceps or sponge-holding forceps10 min to 48 hours
Blumenthal, 2016101Lower-middleOverall305NRNRNRNRTrained nurse/midwifeRing forceps or sponge-holding forceps10 min to 48 hours
Butt, 2020102Lower-middleOverall324NRNRCopperBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Chakheni, 2017103Lower-middleInsertion technique: Kelly forceps5024.5NRCopperCaesareanNRKelly’s forcepsIntra-caesarean
Dewan, 2017104Lower-middleVaginal6324.9 (3.6)NRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min
Dewan, 2017104Lower-middleCaesarean28524.9 (3.6)NRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonring forceps10 min
Dewan, 201936Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min to 48 hours208 210NRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Dias, 2016105Lower-middleDelivery type: VD6026.4 (5.6)NRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManuallyImmediately after delivery
Dias, 2016105Lower-middleDelivery type: CS3129.7 (5.9)NRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManuallyImmediately after delivery
Divakar, 2019106Lower-middleOverall66 50824.5 (4.3)NRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forcepsUp to 48 hours
El Beltagy, 2011107Lower-middleIUD type: copper15025.27 (5.5)NRCopperVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
El Beltagy, 2011107Lower-middleIUD type: hormonal15025.37 (5.74)NRHormonalVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Elshamy, 2021108Lower-middleIUD type: copper55029.2 (3.4)NRCopperVaginalNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Elshamy, 2021108Lower-middleIUD type: hormonal55029.5 (3.3)NRHormonalVaginalNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Elsedeek, 2012109Lower-middleIUD type: copper7531.0 (3.8)NRCopperCaesareanNRManuallyDuring caesarean
Elsedeek, 2012109Lower-middleIUD type: hormonal6532.7 (2.7)NRHormonalCaesareanNRManuallyDuring caesarean
Elsedeek, 2015110Lower-middleIUD type: copper6332.3 (4.7)NRCopperCaesareanNRManuallyDuring caesarean
Elsedeek, 2015110Lower-middleIUD type: hormonal8037.5 (3.3)NRHormonalCaesareanNRManuallyDuring caesarean
Eluwa 2016111Lower-middleOverall728NR28 (24–32)CopperNRAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Eluwa 2016111Lower-middleInsertion technique: manual77NRNRCopperNRAny delivering obstetrical providerManually10 min
Eluwa 2016111Lower-middleInsertion technique: Kelly forceps223NRNRCopperNRAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Fatema, 2018112Lower-middleOverall370NRNRNRBothNRNRWithin 48 hours
Fatima 2018113Lower-middleIntervention: post-insertion training16 359NR25.0 (21.0–28.0)CopperNRNRNRUp to 48 hours
Fatima 2018113Lower-middleIntervention: pre-insertion training16 359NR25.0 (21.0–28.0)CopperNRNRNRUp to 48 hours
Ghafoor, 2020114Lower-middleOverall10826.7 (4.4)NRNRNRNRNRWithin 48 hours
Gueye, 2013115Lower-middleOverall5928 (16–44)NRCopperCaesareanAny delivering obstetrical providerManually or IUD inserter10 min
Gupta, 2018116Lower-middleDelivery type: VD
Insertion time: 10 min to 48 hours
247NRNRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Gupta, 2018116Lower-middleDelivery type: CS355NRNRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonNR10 min
Gupta, 2018116Lower-middleDelivery type: VD
Insertion time: up to 10 min
814NRNRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min
Gupta, 2015117Lower-middleOverall150NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min
Gupta, 2014118Lower-middleOverall10025.21 (3.41NR (18–35)CopperBothNRKelly’s forceps or manually10 min
Habib, 2020119Lower-middleDelivery type: VD6027.6 (6.9)NRCopperVaginalNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Habib, 2020119Lower-middleDelivery type: CS6027.6 (6.9)NRCopperCaesareanNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Halder 2016120Lower-middleDelivery type: CS100NRNRCopperCaesareanNRManually10 min
Halder 2016120Lower-middleDelivery type: VD
Insertion time: 10 min to 48 hours
10NRNRCopperVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Halder 2016120Lower-middleDelivery type: VD
Insertion time: Up to 10 min
90NRNRCopperVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min
Harani, 2019121Lower-middleDelivery type: VD12723.6 (3.85)NRCopperVaginalNRKelly’s forceps10 min
Harani, 2019121Lower-middleDelivery type: CS12725.1 (4.34)NRCopperCaesareanNRManually10 min
Hooda, 2016122Lower-middleOverall593NRNRCopperBothNRKelly’s forceps or ring forcepsPost-placental delivery or intra-caesarean
Huber-Krum, 2020123Lower-middleDate: May 2016–Apr 201869 210NRNRNRBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNRWithin 48 hours
Ifitikhar, 2019124Lower-middleOverall372NRNRNRBothNRNRWithin 48 hours
Jairaj, 201654Lower-middleOverall37023.70 (2.95)NRNRBothNRManuallyAfter placental removal
Jakhar, 2019125Lower-middleOverall20024.87 (3.85)NRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManuallyIntra-caesarean
Kant, 2016126Lower-middleOverall611NRNRCopperVaginalTrained nurse/midwifeNR48 hours
Karra, 2017127Lower-middleOverall13 73128.68 (5.5)NRNRBothNRNR‘All women who consented to receiving a PPIUD were interviewed in postnatal recovery wards’
Khan, 2018128Lower-middleDelivery type: CS155NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually10 min
Khan, 2018128Lower-middleDelivery type: VD345NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min
Khan, 2018128Lower-middleOverall50028.47 (8.51)NRCopperBothNRKelly’s forceps or manually10 min
Khan, 202050Lower-middleDelivery type: VD7629.9 (5.2)NR (20–42)CopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min
Khan, 202050Lower-middleDelivery type: CD7629.9 (5.2)NR (20–42)CopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonRing forceps10 min
Khurshid, 2020129Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min to 48 hours23827.9 (9.33)NR (19–35)CopperVaginalNRManually10 min
Kumar, 2014130Lower-middleOverall273324 (4)NRCopperBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Kumar, 2019131Lower-middleDelivery type: VD
Insertion time: 10 min to 48 hours
141NRNRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min
Kumar, 2019131Lower-middleDelivery type: VD
Insertion time: 10 min to 48 hours
171NRNRCopperVaginalTrained nurse/midwifeKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Kumar, 2019131Lower-middleDelivery type: CS532NRNRCopperVaginalTrained nurse/midwifeKelly’s forceps10 min
Kumar, 2019131Lower-middleOverall844NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Lerma, 202033Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min93NR24 (19–40)CopperVaginalNRIUD inserter or Kelly forceps10 min
Lerma, 202033Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min to 48 hours467NR25 (18–45)CopperVaginalNRIUD inserter or Kelly forceps10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleCountry: India72 195NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleCountry: Kenya72 340NRNRCopperBothTrained nurse/midwifeKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleCountry: Tanzania81 456NRNRCopperBothTrained nurse/midwifeKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleCountry: Bangladesh87 951NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleCountry: Nepal119 844NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleCountry: Sri Lanka291 861NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Makins 201833Lower-middleOverall725 647NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps, manually or ring forceps10 min to 48 hours
Mani, 2018132Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min to 48 hours100NRNRCopperBothTrained nurse/midwifeKelly’s forceps10 min
Mani, 2018132Lower-middleInsertion time: 10 min100NRNRCopperBothTrained nurse/midwifeKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Mishra, 2014133Lower-middleOverall564NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps or manually10 min
Mishra, 201748Lower-middleDelivery type: CS357NRNRCopperCaesareanNRNRIntra-caesarean
Mishra, 201748Lower-middleDelivery type: VD379NRNRCopperVaginalNRNRPost-placental delivery
Mishra, 201748Lower-middleOverall736NRNRCopperBothNRNRPost-placental delivery or intra-caesarean
Muganyizi 2018134Lower-middleOverall40 470NRNRCopperVaginalTrained nurse/midwifeNR10 min to 48 hours
Ndegwa, 201434Lower-middleOverall127NRNRNRNRNRNR10 min
N’Guessan, 202046Lower-middleOverall (subgroup HIV patients only)128NRNRCopperBothNRNRPost-placental delivery or intra-caesarean
Nigam 2018135Lower-middleOverall550NRNRCopperBothNRNR10 min
Nisar, 2020136Lower-middleOverall800329.8 (3.7)NR (19–40)NRBothNRNR10 min to 24 hours
Pfitzer, 2015137Lower-middleCountry: Philippines33 900NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Pfitzer, 2015137Lower-middleCountry: Pakistan34 502NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Pfitzer, 2015137Lower-middleCountry: India1 767 880NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Pleah 201635Lower-middleCountry: Senegal820NRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Pleah 201635Lower-middleCountry: Benin2934NRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Pleah 201635Lower-middleCountry: Benin4858NRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Pleah 201635Lower-middleCountry: Ivory Coast6782NRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Pradhan, 201925Lower-middleOverall15 607NRNRNRBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonNR‘Following delivery’
Prager, 2012138Lower-middleOverall38NRNRNRBothTrained nurse/midwifeRing forceps‘PPIUDs were inserted in postpartum women. Women were generally discharged after 12–24 hours, which was well within the 48- hour window recommended for PPIUD insertion’
Puri, 2020139Lower-middleOverall75 571NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNRWithin 48 hours
Qazi, 2020140Lower-middleOverall6283NRNRCopperBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Rani, 2015141Lower-middleDelivery type: VD4924.8 (NR)NR (19–40)CopperVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerForceps10 min
Rani, 2015141Lower-middleDelivery type: CD5024.9 (NR)NR (19–40)CopperCaesareanAny delivering obstetrical providerForceps10 min
Rwegoshora, 2020142Lower-middleOverall20 276NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNRWithin 48 hours
Shukla, 2012143Lower-middleOverall1317NRNR (22–30)CopperBothNRSponge-holding forceps10 min
Singal, 2014144Lower-middleOverall30023.12 (2.42)NRCopperCaesareanNRRing forceps10 min
Singal, 2021145Lower-middleOverall401225.1 (NR)NRNRNRAny delivering obstetrical providerNRWithin 48 hours
Singh 2016146Lower-middleOverall80NRNR (18–37)NRVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerNR10 min to 48 hours
Singh, 2021147Lower-middleInsertion technique: long inserter292NRNR (range 20–40)CopperVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerIUD inserter (long)10 min to 48 hours
Singh, 2021147Lower-middleInsertion technique: conventional method301NRNR (range 20–40)CopperVaginalAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps or manually10 min to 48 hours
Sodje, 2016148Lower-middleOverall374NR38 (19–49)CopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min
Thapa, 2020149Lower-middleOverall29 072NRNRNRBothNRNR‘Immediate postpartum family planning… immediately after childbirth’
Vishwakarma, 2020150Lower-middleOverall1029NRNRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually10 min to 48 hours
Wasim, 2018151Lower-middleDelivery type: CS350NRNRCopperCaesareanDoctor/consultant/ surgeonManually10 min
Wasim, 2018151Lower-middleDelivery type: VD900NRNRCopperVaginalDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps10 min
Wasim, 2018151Lower-middleOverall3012NRNRCopperBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonKelly’s forceps or manually10 min
Weerasekera 2018152Lower-middleOverall184 433NRNRNRBothDoctor/consultant/ surgeonNRImmediately after delivery
Yadav, 2016153Lower-middleOverall28 688NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNR10 min to 48 hours
Yadav, 2020154Lower-middleOverall20 418NRNRCopperBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Zaman, 2020155Lower-middleOverall140NRNR (20–45)CopperNRNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Ragab, 201526Lower-middle and highOverall12029 (5)NRCopperCaesareanNRIUD inserter10 min
Bryant, 2013156LowInsertion time: 10 min to 48 hours26NR26 (IQR 22–30)CopperVaginalTrained nurse/midwifeRing forceps10 min to 48 hours
Espey, 2021157LowOverall12 06828.3 (NR)NRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNRPostplacental
Geda, 2021158LowOverall286NRNRNRBothNRNRWithin 48 hours
Ingabire, 2018159LowOverall902028.3 (6.0)NRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerNR10 min to 48 hours
Kanakuze, 2020160LowOverall38328.9 (4.3)NRCopperBothTrained nurse/midwifeNR10 min to 48 hours
Lester, 2015161LowInsertion time: 10 min3424.6 (5.2)NRCopperCaesareanNRRing forceps10 min
Melkie, 2021162LowOverall42329.5 (4.2)NRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Ngonzi, 2021163LowOverall167NRNRCopperVaginalNRRing forceps10 min to 48 hours
Omona, 2020164LowOverall202NRNRCopperBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Pfitzer, 2015137LowCountry: Ethiopia16 389NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Pfitzer, 2015137LowCountry: Guinea20 699NRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Pfitzer, 2015137LowCountry: RwandaNRNRNRCopperBothAny delivering obstetrical providerKelly’s forceps10 min to 48 hours
Pleah 201635LowCountry: NigerNRNRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Pleah 201635LowCountry: TogoNRNRNRNRBothNRNR10 min to 48 hours
Wayessa, 2020165LowNon-randomised intervention471NRNRNRNRAny delivering obstetrical providerNRUp to 48 hours
Wayessa, 2020165LowNon-randomised intervention237NRNRNRNRAny delivering obstetrical providerNRUp to 48 hours
  • CD, caesarean delivery; CS, caesarean section; IUD, intrauterine device; NR, not reported; PPIUD, postpartum intrauterine device; VD, vaginal delivery.